Hi, Alan. How do I get the water to 175°F (80°C)? I do not plan to spend on a thermometer. I heat water in a steel vessel on a gas stove. – From Krishna P.

My favorite way to heat water if you have a microwave oven is to heat a certain amount of water in the microwave oven for the number of seconds it takes to reach the desired temperature. All you need to do to learn the desired number of seconds is to borrow a cooking thermometer one time and experiment to learn the number of seconds you need in the microwave oven to get to the desired temperature. After that all you need to do is remember the number of seconds needed in the microwave oven. If you don’t have a microwave oven or if you don’t have a friend with a cooking thermometer, heat water in your steel vessel on your gas stove until the water starts forming air bubbles on the side of the vessel. The water will be about 175°F. If you think the water was not hot enough, heat the water until you get to a set amount of time such as 20 seconds past the air bubbles forming. Adjust the number of seconds until you reach the brewing temperature that brews coffee you really like.